What Is 5G Technology? | A Step-By-Step Guide

what is 5g

What is 5G?

What is 5G? 5G is the term which is used to describe the 5th generation of wireless communication technology that supports the cellular data network.

The 5th generation of cellular data networks is beyond the LTE network. The adoption of 5g technology started in 2019 on a large scale.

Every telecommunication provider in this world is upgrading to 5G.

The 5G requires 5G enabled communication devices such as mobile handset on a large scale to support the technology.

5G speed will range from 50Mbps to 2Gbps. 5G has lower latency then 4g. Verizon state that latency on 5G on its early deployment is 30ms.

Adding Edge servers close to the tower can reduce latency to 10ms.

Let's see how we get here.

a. 1G: Mobile voice calls. Deliver an analog voice.

b. 2G: Mobile voice calls plus SMS. Deliver digital voice ( CDMA).

c. 3G: Brought Mobile data or we can say that mobile web browsing.

d. 4G: LTE Higher data speed and mobile video consumption. Ushered in the era of mobile internet.

e. 5G: Better technology to serve customers and digitalization of industries.

How 5G works?

Modern networks operate at frequencies from 600 MHz to 2.6 GHz, which is the lower limit of microwave waves. 

With the advent of 5G, it became possible to use a higher frequency range, including the so-called millimeter waves. 

Operators will continue to use the low-frequency range from 600 MHz to 2.6 GHz in 5G networks, and after some time they will begin to use increasingly higher frequencies such as 3.5 GHz, 6 GHz, and even 30 GHz.
Millimeter waves operate in the frequency range from 30 to 300 GHz with a wavelength of 10 mm to 1 mm, respectively, however, the maximum frequency of millimeter waves of 300 GHz is likely to be achieved in the next generation of 6G communications.
High frequencies are good for many reasons, one of the most important - they are able to provide high network capacity and high transmission speeds. 

High-frequency bands have not yet been overloaded with existing cellular communications and in the future will be able to provide growing requirements for network bandwidth. 

In addition, the transmission of signals at extremely high frequencies is characterized by a clear directivity, therefore, radio signals in this range can be transmitted in parallel with the operation of other wireless devices, without causing interference. 

Unlike 5G, 4G towers emit a signal in all directions, sometimes wasting energy and power on the emission of radio waves in areas where the connection is not required. 

5G, in turn, transmits data at shorter wavelengths, which means that the antennas can be much smaller than those used now, and at the same time provide more accurate directional adjustment. 

When 5G networks become widely available, data will be transmitted at extremely high speeds to more users. Transmission accuracy will increase and delays will be minimal.

There are also disadvantages to high frequencies - they transmit a signal within the line of sight between the antenna and the receiving device and strongly attenuate when transmitting over long distances. For these reasons, the location of antennas in 5G networks must be carefully planned.
Perhaps they will be small antennas in each room or building or large ones located throughout the city. However, 5G networks can easily adapt to different types of transmitted content and are able to switch to low power mode when not in use or when some device is operating at low speeds.

What can we expect from 5G?

Why increase the data transfer rate? Are modern speed indicators not enough?

It all depends on the task that needs to be addressed. For the average user, the increase in speed is, for example, the ability to download a movie in Full HD resolution in just a few seconds or play in virtual reality without interference.

The 5G standard is necessary for the large-scale functioning of the Internet of Things. Thanks to this technology, it will be possible to connect tens of millions of devices to the Internet, from unmanned vehicles to smart electric kettles.

The fifth-generation provides opportunities for the introduction of new technologies in various sectors of the economy. It is about increasing the productivity of robots in enterprises and remote control of agricultural machinery. Telemedicine with 5G will allow you to perform remote operations in real-time.

Do I need to change the Phone?

Yes, but for now you can take your time. To connect to a 5G network, you need a smartphone that supports this standard. Such devices are already produced by some manufacturers. But:

  • firstly, a massive transition to fifth-generation communications will take place over several years;
  • secondly, the 5G connection is still under development, and something will inevitably change.

5G application cases

More than enough has been said about the scope of 5G - this is a popular topic, and you can easily find the details of interesting cases. We list the main ones.

Internet of Things (IoT)

This includes the smart home concept, manufacturing, and computing power (IIoT), smart city infrastructure. 

Devices and systems are integrated into a common network with remote control and monitoring with minimal delays. In the first case, it can be household appliances, climate control, emergency warning systems. 

At industrial facilities, 5G will provide fast, high-quality communication between machines, measuring instruments, and data centers. Residents of cities will be able to take advantage of uninterrupted operational access to various services: public service centers, public transport, and more.

Unmanned Vehicles

Autonomous cargo transportation, city taxi, agricultural machinery - many types of transport can be switched to an unmanned mode in order to ensure greater accuracy, reliability, and safety of processes.

Cloud technologies

Data storage, instant loading, and computing. Cloud applications, which previously required the installation of on-premise, will become widely applicable. Thanks to high-speed data transfer, users and developers will be able to perform operations requiring high hardware power, having only mobile Internet at hand.


High-quality communication with remote regions will provide high-quality support in case of an emergency. During complex operations or diagnostics using the 5G video stream, it will provide high speed and resolution. Also, with the help of fitness trackers, users will be able to transfer their biometric parameters in a continuous mode for storage and processing.

Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR / AR)

It's not just about entertainment, but also about a very responsible application - interactive learning systems, navigation systems, complex engineering processes, and even tactile Internet.

If you look into the more distant future, then with the advent of 5G, such as “smart” systems as a home, city, production will actively develop. We should also note the trend for the use of voice assistants. In addition, with the spread of 5G, artificial intelligence will get a second life and will become available to a much larger number of users.

Potential 5G technology

1. Massive MIMO

MIMO technology means using multiple antennas on transceivers. 

The technology, successfully used in fourth-generation networks, will find application in 5G networks. 

Moreover, if MIMO 2x2 and 4x4 are currently used in networks, then in the future the number of antennas will increase. This technology has two weighty arguments for application at once: 

1. The data transfer speed increases almost in proportion to the number of antennas,

2. The signal quality improves when a signal is received by several antennas at the same time due to diversity reception ( Receive  Diversity ).

2. Transition to the centimeter and millimeter ranges

Currently, LTE networks operate in frequency ranges below 3.5 GHz. For the full functioning of 5G mobile networks, it is necessary to deploy networks in more free high-frequency ranges. 

With an increase in the frequency at which information is transmitted, the communication range decreases. 

This is the law of physics, you can get around it only by increasing the transmitter power, which is limited by sanitary standards. 

However, it is believed that the base stations of the fifth generation networks will be denser than now, due to the need to create a much larger network capacity. The advantage of the tens of GHz bands is the presence of a large amount of free spectrum.

3. Multi-technology

To provide high-quality service in 5G networks, it is necessary to support both existing standards, such as UMTS, GSM, LTE, and others, for example, Wi-Fi. Base stations using Wi-Fi technology can be used to offload traffic in, particularly busy places.

4. D2D ( Device-to-Device)

The device-to-device technology allows devices located nearby from each other to exchange data directly, without the participation of the 5G network, through the core of which only signal traffic will pass. The advantage of this technology is the ability to transfer data transfer to the unlicensed part of the spectrum, which will further offload the network.

What is the difference between 4G and 5G?

The difference between 4G and 5G are as follows:

1. 5G has much more speed than 4G. For example, the maximum speed of 5G can reach up to 2Gbps while the maximum speed of 4G is 100Mbps

2. 5G has extremely low latency while the 4G has more latency than 5G. For example, The lowest air latency of 5G is up to 10ms while the latency of 4G is up to 50ms.

3. 5G is more capable than 4G because 5G is a unified platform. Which means it brings people, systems, and data together to form an effective ecosystem.

4. 5G can support millions of devices per square kilometer, while 4G only supports up to 100,000 devices per square kilometer. That means the capability of 5G is much more than 4G.

5. 5G uses spectrum better than 4G. 5G spectrum is a range of radiofrequency which is better than the 4G spectrum.

What are the disadvantages of 5G?

There will be a huge amount of money will be used in the deployment and up-gradation of 5G.

All cellular networks infrastructure need to be changed totally, which requires a lot of time.

Most of the devices and smartphones are not compatible with 5G technology. 5G incompatible devices need to be changed.

millimeter waves could be absorbed by plants and water which can be problematic. 

The price of the 5G data plan may be higher than the current data plans.

5G technology still has some security flaws as it is in the development stage. It will take much more time to become fully operational with no security flaws.

There will be a lack of 5G signal coverage as it uses a higher frequency to transmit the signal. Signals will less penetrate through walls or basements which may directly affect your internet speed.

What are the advantages of 5G?

The speed of 5G is greater than any network. Millions of devices can be connected per square kilometer.

If a proper 5G network is settled up then you will be connected all the time no matter wherever you are, you can access your home with your smartphone assistance.

Have you guys ever played PUBG? if you play PUBG on the 4G network the minimum ping you will get is 40ms and if you play PUBG on the 5G network the ping will be 10ms or low than this. This mean response time of the 5G network is better than 4G.

5G has improved bandwidth as compared to 4G. 5G also promises lower battery consumption.

So the above-mentioned features are some advantages of a 5G. 5G technology will be available in every country by 2021. Companies are working on building and improving their 5G infrastructure and will soon bring the 5G devices and services to the consumer at affordable prices.


Q. When will 5G really arrive?

A. The first test of 5G occurred in 2018. The first country to adopt the 5G on a large scale was South Korea in 2019. 5G technology may available worldwide up to 2021.

Q. Will 5G work on 4G phones?

A. No, You cannot use 5G on 4G phones. You need to buy a 5G enabled smartphone in order to use 5G.

Q. Which 5G device can I buy?

A. Below is the list of 5G devices that you can buy.

  • Samsung Galaxy A90 5G.
  • OnePlus 7T McLaren 5G.
  • Nokia 8.3 5G.
  • Huawei Mate 30 Pro 5G.
  • Realme X50 Pro 5G.
  • LG V60 ThinQ.
  • Oppo Find X2 Pro.
  • Xiaomi Mi 10 Series.
  • Samsung Galaxy S20 Series.
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 10 5G/ Plus 5G.
Q. Is 5G is faster than 4G.

A. 5G is significantly faster than 4G. The maximum speed of 5G is 2Gbps whereas the maximum speed of 4G is around 100mbps.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post